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The final paper takes everything you’ve learned about research and the topic and presents this learning in a paper with two major parts: a debate section and an argument section.

1. The Debate (presented in the narratio)

2. Your application of the argument framework, necessary refutation, and concessions or limitations (see Chapter 6.1 for potential structural assistance).

The 2 principle areas of development in this paper require you to apply all the course abilities.  I’m especially looking at your ability to analyze, evaluate, and compare sources, use evidence and appeals effectively, refine your ability to use written communication techniques, and apply the persuasive/argument framework with intention and purpose (especially in your evaluation of sources). You’ll still need a purposeful introduction and a conclusion.


1. Sources: 6 min

2. Length: 2000 word min

3. Format: MLA 8

4. Presented in the course portfolio with 2 other revised papers you’ve written for the course and a portfolio cover letter on the due date

Directions for the Portfolio Cover Letter.

Here’s a sample outline:

Lots of people are talking about 3-D printing. 3-D printing is printing goods, even food products, like linguini, using powders or resins or other materials.

But there is also controversy and a debate.  Author B argues that 3-D printing will hurt the economy. Author A talks about the potential for terrorists to use 3-D for gun manufacture. Author C and B provide evidence that 3-D will totally change how goods and services are done in the US.

Thesis: 3-D Printing will revolutionize how consumers acquire products, promote and provoke creative innovation, and disrupt traditional manufacturing.

Arg 1: Change how consumers acquire products

Evidence comes from Author A, counter args from Author E, Author F.

Here’s a useful appeal, given the argument: isn’t freedom of choice good in this regard?

Arg 2: Promote and provoke creative innovation

Author A provides lots of evidence in support of this. Author C disagrees but is wrong.

Here’s a useful appeal, given the argument: creativity is definitely a value to be promoted, right?

Arg 3: Disrupt traditional manufacturing

Author D, F, and B involved here with a tad bit of evidence for each

Here’s a useful appeal, given the argument: People are at the thrall of traditional industry; isn’t promoting the value of people making themselves a good thing?

The Conclusion or Peroration


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